Cultural Vandalism: China’s Destruction of Buddhist Sites in Uyghurs’ Homeland

by Dr. Chandan Kumar

Buddhism, one of the world’s oldest religions, has deep historical roots in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, located in the western part of China. This region, also known as East Turkestan, has been home to a rich Buddhist heritage for centuries. However, recent reports and evidence suggest that this cultural legacy is under severe threat due to the Chinese government’s policies and actions in the area. This article aims to shed light on the alarming issue of the destruction of Buddhist sites in the Uyghur region of China.

Buddhism in the Uyghur Region: A Historical Perspective

Buddhism arrived in the Uyghur region more than 2,000 years ago, making it an integral part of the region’s cultural and historical identity. Over time, it flourished, leading to the creation of numerous monasteries, stupas, and other sacred Buddhist sites. These sites served not only as centres of spiritual practice but also as hubs for art, education, and cultural exchange.

During its peak, the Uyghur Buddhist civilization developed a unique form of Buddhist art and script known as Tocharian, which is an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The Uyghur region’s Buddhist legacy is a testament to the region’s historical diversity and its role as a melting pot of various cultures and religions.

China’s Uyghur Policy and Cultural Destruction

In recent years, the Chinese government’s policies in the Uyghur region have come under intense scrutiny, both domestically and internationally. Reports of mass detentions, forced labor, and cultural suppression have raised serious human rights concerns. One aspect of these policies that has received insufficient attention is the destruction of Buddhist sites and the erasure of Uyghur cultural heritage.

Bulldozing of Monasteries and Stupas

Reports from the Uyghur region indicate that Chinese authorities have been bulldozing and demolishing Buddhist monasteries, stupas, and other religious structures. One of the most well-known cases is the demolition of the Larung Gar Buddhist Academy, one of the largest Tibetan Buddhist centres in the world. This massive complex was home to thousands of monks and nuns and played a vital role in preserving Tibetan Buddhism and culture.

The Chinese government claims these demolitions are part of “urban development” projects, but experts argue that they are aimed at eradicating Uyghur cultural and religious identities. Many of these sites have been reduced to rubble, leaving behind nothing but memories of a once-thriving Buddhist heritage.

Repurposing Religious Sites

In addition to demolishing Buddhist sites, Chinese authorities have repurposed religious buildings for non-religious uses. This includes turning monasteries into government offices or military barracks. Such actions not only disrespect the sacredness of these sites but also deny Uyghurs the right to practice their religion freely.

Forced Removal of Religious Symbols

Chinese authorities have also forcibly removed religious symbols from Buddhist sites. Statues, prayer flags, and other religious icons have been taken down and replaced with symbols of Chinese nationalism. This deliberate attempt to erase Buddhism from the public sphere is a direct assault on Uyghur culture and religious identity.

Cultural Appropriation and Misrepresentation

The Chinese government has also engaged in cultural appropriation by promoting a distorted version of Buddhism that aligns with its political agenda. This includes the reinterpretation of Buddhist teachings to emphasize loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party, essentially turning religion into a tool of propaganda.

International Response and Concerns

The destruction of Buddhist sites in the Uyghur region has raised significant concerns among the international community. Human rights organizations, foreign governments, and UNESCO have expressed their concerns about the ongoing cultural vandalism and the threat it poses to the world’s cultural heritage.

Calls for Investigation

Numerous countries and international bodies have called for an independent investigation into the situation in the Uyghur region. These calls have grown louder as more evidence of cultural destruction has come to light.

UNESCO’s Inaction

While UNESCO is responsible for protecting and preserving cultural heritage around the world, its response to the destruction of Buddhist sites in the Uyghur region has been criticized as inadequate. Many argue that UNESCO should take a more active role in documenting and condemning the destruction of these sites and should consider designating them as World Heritage Sites to provide additional protection.

Economic Sanctions

Some countries have imposed economic sanctions on Chinese officials and entities responsible for human rights abuses in the Uyghur region. While these sanctions are primarily aimed at addressing broader human rights violations, they also indirectly target those responsible for the destruction of Buddhist sites.


Xinjiang boasts a rich Buddhist heritage, featuring ancient cave temples, statues, and monasteries. These sites, with a history dating back over a millennium, are invaluable cultural treasures. However, concerns have arisen regarding their preservation due to various factors, including neglect and urban development. Additionally, the region’s political situation, marked by human rights controversies and tensions, has cast a shadow over efforts to safeguard these historical gems. The fate of these Buddhist sites remains a topic of global concern, as the world watches closely to ensure their protection and cultural significance amid the evolving dynamics in Xinjiang.

Top of Form

The destruction of Buddhist sites in the Uyghur region is a disturbing example of the Chinese government’s campaign to suppress Uyghur culture and religion. These actions not only violate the fundamental rights of the Uyghur people but also erode the world’s cultural heritage. It is crucial for the international community to continue raising awareness about this issue, pressuring China to halt these destructive practices, and advocating for the protection and preservation of Buddhist sites in the Uyghur region. Only through collective action can we hope to safeguard the rich Buddhist heritage that has been an integral part of this region’s identity for centuries.

Brief Bio

Dr. Chandan Kumar, PhD, is a young Buddhist strategist. He is working as a Assistant Professor in Delhi University, New Delhi, India. With a passion of writing, he authored articles in newspapers and journals. He is the founder of Buddhonomics, a sustainable initiative. His areas of interest include Buddhist ethics, Buddha Dhamma soft power, diplomacy, and the historical significance of silk routes. Dr. Kumar’s contributions have greatly enriched the field of Buddhist studies & global understanding of Buddhism.

Image: Zongnan Bao on Unsplash

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